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(lio&i ol Milk 

Copyright, 1949 


Toronto - Canada 

<f^ Teacher, Soldier, Inventor. . . j^ 

ail Borden's neighbors 
didn't say he acted strangely. You didn't say that about a man 
with the be-whiskered dignity of Gail Borden, even if he did do 
things that were . . . well ... a little unusual, to say the least . . . 

So goes the chronicle of the man whose meat biscuits saved 
the lives of Arctic explorers and sparked the development of 
condensed milk out of which was born The Borden Company, 

Gail Borden's neighbors thought he acted strangely when he 
took them for a ride in a strange contraption. It had wheels, yet 
it wasn't a wagon; it had a sail, but it wasn't a boat. 

It was a land schooner, applying on land the principles used 
by sailors on the sea. It harnessed the wind and did it so effectively 
that the first and only trip piled the passengers and driver Borden 
into the sea. 

Gail was the first to admit the schooner was a failure. But the 
man who, throughout his lifetime, was to run the gamut from 
farmer through surveyor, settler, teacher, soldier, publisher and 
inventor, turned his inventiveness into other channels. 

During the gold rush in California some friends asked Borden 
to help them prepare for the journey. He promised to make them 
a meat extract they could use along the trail. 


Borden's goal was an adaptation of Indian pemmican, which 
kept fairly well but had a bad flavor. Gail wanted a tasty meat 
extract. He boiled 120 pounds of beef into ten pounds of extract 
thick as molasses and smelling like glue. 

Failure turned into success when Gail mixed flour with some 
of the extract. Kneaded into a biscuit, baked and left overnight 
to cool, it became a meat biscuit rich in flavor and food value. 

Dr. Elisha Kent Kane, an Arctic explorer, used Borden's product. 
Kane and his expedition were forced to abandon ship and it was 
their chief food on a 10-week trek across northern wastes. 

Milk entered the Borden picture in 1851 because of a tragedy 
on the ship carrying Borden back from a trip to England. Two 
cows carried on board to provide milk for children became sick. 
Babies fed milk from these cows grew ill. Some of them died. 

The picture of the heart-broken mothers holding their dying 
infants in their arms kept returning to Gail. He viewed the problem 
this way: He had preserved meat by condensing it; why wouldn't 
the same process keep milk from souring? 

Five years later, after fighting to establish his claim of originality, 
Borden was granted patents covering the evaporation of milk in 
a vacuum pan. 

Manufacturing difficulties, lack of backers, pressing debts dogged 
Gail for years. Creditors sued him; the situation seemed hopeless 
when he boarded a train one day for New York and sat down beside 
Jeremiah Milbank, a banker. An hour later Milbank advanced 
money to settle Borden's debts and get the condensed milk business 
going again. 

The company, founded by Borden and Milbank, whose grandson 
is today chairman of the board of officers, has become a partner- 
ship of 51,000 who now share in the ownership of the company in 
Canada and the United States and many other parts of the world. 

While the Borden Company in the United States dates its 
birthday back to 1857 — 92 years ago — in Canada we date our 
start from the commencement date in Ingersoll, Ontario, in 1899, 
of the first plant we acquired in Canada. Some of the companies 
which joined Borden's in Canada go back even earlier — in one 
case to 1882, three years before the Riel Rebellion in the Northwest. 
But we consider Ingersoll, where half a century after it began 
operations, we still have a large, thriving and modernized factory, 
the birthplace of our Company in Canada. 


«c^ The Ingersoll Scene j^% 


were open, just a little, for the hall was crowded and the 
April breezes carried a promise of the summer to come. Through 
the open windows could be heard the melodies of the Lone Star 

As the evening wore on the open windows served another 
purpose. They provided an easy exit for the fumes of a carbide 
spotlight which held a chorus of dancing Topsies in a circle of 
light and as they danced, their shadows flickered across the stage 
to where a strong leash held in tow the "world's largest blood- 
hound", more than 80 pounds in weight and valued at $1,000. 

Out of the open windows, too, came snatches of applause for 
the members of Stetson's Uncle Tom's Cabin Company, perform- 
ing on the stage. 

This was the Ingersoll scene in April, 1899. 


On the desk of Ingersoll's mayor lay a petition from town 
doctors seeking permission to ride their bicycles on the sidewalks. 
They based their request on an old English law which decreed 
that doctors should make their calls using the shortest possible 

The petition awaited action because the mayor and other mem- 
bers of council were in Buffalo inspecting road machines. Bicycles 
could be bought for $12 and advertisements proclaimed the advan- 
tages of automatic whistle cycle alarms. 

The world was still a year away from the 20th Century. There 
were no aeroplanes, automobiles, or radios. The rich goldfields 
of northern Ontario and Quebec lay hidden in a wilderness of 
muskeg and blackflies. With only five million people, Canada was 
still a country of farms and forests. Saskatchewan and Alberta 
were six years away from becoming provinces. From Manitoba 
to the Rockies there were only 100,000 settlers, sparsely scattered 
across two million square miles. 

A 25-year-old student, William Lyon Mackenzie King, was 
at Harvard, where he planned to lecture in political economy. 

Out in the cow town of Calgary, a young lawyer, Richard Bed- 
ford Bennett, had just been elected to the legislature of the North 
West Territories. 

Men's elastic-sided boots were $2.50 and a lady's fur-lined cape 
cost $15. There was no income tax, and the cost of federal govern- 
ment came to less than $8 a head. The Toronto World, dead these 
many years, had the largest circulation of any morning paper in 
Canada, and Henty had just written three new books for boys. No 
one had heard of a Yukon bank clerk named Robert Service. 

Within Canada there was restless expansion, ferment, the push- 
ing back of frontiers. The young giant was nearing manhood. 

At Niagara Falls a new suspension bridge was begun and there 
was a bread war. The price of a loaf dropped from six cents to 
one and a half cents. The Crow's Nest Pass over the Rockies was 
opened to rail traffic, and the C.P.R. imported Swiss guides to 
teach mountain climbing at Banff. In the west there was talk about 
opening a Hudson's Bay route to Britain, and Toronto city council 
set aside $5,000 to learn the best route to James Bay. Because 
the telegraph line to Dawson City wasn't completed young Mike 
Mahoney raced to Vancouver in the record time of 14 days with 
the message that 3,000 gold seekers were on the verge of starva- 
page six 

tion. Penny Postage was introduced on letters to Britain and the 
United States. 

The stage was set for the prediction of Sir Wilfrid Laurier that 
"the Twentieth Century belongs to Canada". 

Early in 1899 Cecil Rhodes asserted confidently that there was 
no possibility of war with the Transvaal. Yet before the year was 
out, the first Canadian troops ever to fight abroad had sailed for 
South Africa. They were equipped in Canada, newspapers of the 
day reporting proudly that "Fine elastic was used in their braces". 
Their wives at home received a separation allowance of 15 cents 
a day, with five cents for each child under 16. 

It marked the end of an era, and the beginning of a new age. 

In a King Street building in Ingersoll, milk from the cows 
of Oxford county bubbled in evaporators. Tin-making machines 
pounded with a steady rhythm and out in the country, horses and 
carts were rumbling over dirt roads, the clatter of tin cans punctu- 
ating the pounding of steel shoes. 

Here, where the daily output of thousands of cows found its 
way into tins and formed a substantial part of Ingersoll' s monthly 
exports, a new chapter in Canadian dairying industry began. 

For here, what is now The Borden Company, Limited, began, 
with Ingersoll providing the starting point for the second lap in 
a venture which had its beginning many years before in a man's 
desire to give the world condensed milk. 


*^ Milk in Cans j^ 


the opening of the St. Charles Condensary was bright and sunny. 
The weather was dry, because Byron Jenvey, who delivered the 
first load of milk to the condensary, took a short cut to school that 
morning and crossed the river flats without getting his feet wet. 

The horse he drove to the factory was old "Dan", a bay, standing 
about 17 hands. He was chosen because he was the least nervous 
horse on a farm where heavy draught horses were used for the 
harder farm work and a lighter team was kept for other farm chores 
and for travelling. 

"It was fortunate for me that old Dan was of a quiet nature," 
Jenvey recalls. "At the factory we unloaded the milk right under 
the window where the steam from the can-scalding machine shot 
out over the heads of the farmers' horses and, for many years, 
caused many disasters." 

Byron Jenvey's early morning ride over stony Ingersoll roads 


in a democrat from which the two rear seats had been removed to 
make room for the milk cans heralded vital changes in the economic 
standards and farming methods of the district. 

The only spring wagons in the district were the democrats which 
were used for church going and visiting, and the lumber wagons 
with portable springs on the bolsters. A small load of milk wouldn't 
hold down the springs of the heavy wagons, so the democrats 
were used. 

These wagons were high and it took two men to load the milk 
cans containing 68 pounds of milk, yet it was fortunate for young 
Jenvey that the wagon was high, because it was level with the 
doorway at the factory and made unloading easier. 

It wasn't long before the democrats were cut down and then 
replaced with platform spring wagons made especially for patrons 
of the condensary. The farmers found hauling milk was hard on 
wagons. Running every morning over stone roads soon loosened 
the felloes and tires and these needed frequent setting. To speed 
up this type of work the wagon shops introduced the cold set. 

The Ingersoll factory revolutionized farming in the district. Up 
to the turn of the century, dairy farming had been a part-time 
affair; a summer business to be almost ignored in the winter, and 
cows were permitted to go dry and the farmer turned his attention 
to feeding his stock, repairing his equipment and doing the hundred 
and one things on a farm which are neglected in the spring and 

"The establishment of the condensing factory had many bene- 
ficial results in the Ingersoll area," Mr. Jenvey recalls. "Dairymen 
received a good training on sanitation in the stables and in feeding 
dairy cattle. Utensils had to be clean. Winter dairying was brought 
into existence and milk production of the herds increased. With 
the extra money received, the farmer improved his premises and 
more farmers were induced to become dairymen." 

There was no ceremony to mark the birth of an industry which 
was to have such a marked effect on the economy of Oxford county. 
Two men, Finlay Mclntyre, who had supervised construction of the 
plant, and Walter Knight, the first superintendent, were sitting on 
the platform when young Byron drove up with his father's first 
load of milk for the condensary. After delivering the milk Byron 
hustled back home to change his clothes before he walked nearly 
three miles to the Ingersoll Collegiate. 

The St. Charles Condensary located in Ingersoll mainly through 


the efforts of the late Thomas Seldon, who was mayor in 1888 and 
1889. He met Mr. Mclntyre when he and other officials of the 
company were surveying Oxford county for a suitable site for a 
Canadian plant. According to James G. Milne, who retired as 
superintendent of the Ingersoll plant this year (1949), "the town 
council purchased the land for the company and also furnished 
them with a source of water supply." 

The water was found two miles from the plant, in a bush, and 
piped to a reservoir in front of the factory. The reservoir is still 
being used although now it is supplemented by a deep well. 

The St. Charles plant at Ingersoll was barely into full production 
when the South African war began and just as Gail Borden's first 
plant at Wassaic, N.Y., did during the civil war in the United States, 
the original Canadian Borden plant operated almost entirely on 
war orders of evaporated milk. Many years later, in both world 
wars, Borden production, not only of evaporated milk but powdered 
milk and powdered eggs, was geared to increasing export demands. 

In the early days the condensary provided the farmers with 
milk cans without charge. The cans, when filled to the neck, held 
68 pounds of milk. Only part-cans were weighed at first, but with 
constant use cans became badly dented and it was necessary to 
weigh all milk. Milk contracts at that time required that the farmer 
should deliver two-fifths of his yearly production in the winter and 
three-fifths in the summer. 

Weighing was done by two men wearing leather gloves, who 
lifted the cans almost shoulder-high to empty them. Milk which 
was not cooled to 58 degrees when it arrived at the factory was 
rejected. The milk can of 1899 had a recessed cover in which a 
block of ice was placed by the farmer to keep the milk down to 
the required temperature. 

Introduction of modern cooling systems on farms, daily pickup 
by milk transports and the speed with which the few farmers who 
still deliver their milk personally can get it to the factory, have 
been responsible for one of the few changes over the years in the 
design of milk cans. Gone is the recessed cover in which the 
farmer placed a block of ice. 

Somewhat of a "miracle man" to Ingersoll farmers, 50 years ago, 
was the human thermometer who checked the milk as it came in. 
He became so expert at judging the temperature of a can that he 
seldom needed to use a thermometer. He just ran his fingers up 
the side of the can and announced that the milk was 58 or 60 degrees. 


By comparison with those early, leisurely days of horse-drawn 
vehicles, Borden's Ingersoll plant today boasts the latest and most 
efficient in processing and packing equipment. Complex valves, 
thermostats and gauges make evaporation and condensing almost 

Also automatic is the can-making process at Ingersoll. All 
cutting, stamping, assembling, soldering, testing and labelling is 
done by machinery. The only human assistance comes from a few 
watchful eyes and hands ready to throw a switch or keep the battery 
of machines fed. 

In the years since the opening of the Ingersoll plant, the area 
from which the factory draws its milk has grown far beyond the 
original section which Mr. Jenvey helped to chart. 

"I recall having a small part in the calculation made to estimate 
the amount of milk produced within horse-hauling distance of 
the proposed site of the factory. I drew a map of the district 
within a road radius of five or six miles. The number of cows 
was estimated and the average production was secured from cheese 
factory statements. At that time there were cheese factories every 
few miles which had capacities of 300 tons of cheese per year," 
Mr. Jenvey recalls. 

Still a key point in the Borden operation in Western Ontario, 
Ingersoll integrates its activities with those of other and more 
recent Borden plants in the area. Samples are taken from every 
can of milk arriving at the Ingersoll plant and sped to the laboratory 
at nearby Tillsonburg. There they undergo rigid scientific tests 
for acidity, to assure sweetness; for butterfat, to assure richness; 
and filter tests to safeguard milk from accidental impurities. 


**V The Eagle Brand Trail jf* 


Rhe birth of Borden s in 
Ingersoll, Canada, took place in a two-storey brick and stone 
building, surrounded by lawns. Offices for the plant were located 
in a separate brick building. 

Until the name of Borden appeared on a sign running across 
the front of the building, the plant had been operated by the St. 
Charles Condensing Company, a branch of the company of the 
same name located in St. Charles, Illinois. 

In the Ingersoll plant Borden's had a self-contained establish- 
ment, which needed only a steady milk supply to carry on operations. 

In those early days, when the principles of mass production were 
just beginning to emerge, Borden's Ingersoll plant was something 
unique in Canada because it manufactured its own tins within 
the milk plant. 

Today the same plant, but with modern machinery and methods, 
is still turning out milk tins by the hundreds of thousands every 


day. Main changes in the half-century since the plant was estab- 
lished have been in modernizing machinery and increasing output 
by using up-to-date methods. 

The ancient name "St. Charles" is still almost as familiar to 
residents of Ingersoll as the name of their town. An Ingersoll hotel, 
years ago, adopted and still retains the name of "St. Charles". 

Although "St. Charles" evaporated milk was the pioneer Borden 
product manufactured in Canada, the name of Borden had for 
many years earlier been familiar to Canadians. 

In the pioneering days of Canada, when railwaymen slugged 
it out with forest and stone and water to drive twin rails of steel 
across the country, Gail Borden's original creation, condensed milk, 
marched with the workers, tie by tie. 

During the months they worked in areas where a cow had never 
been seen and where pure milk was worth almost its weight in 
gold, sweating railway workers adopted Borden's condensed milk 
as their own and affectionately dubbed it "The Tin Cow". 

Borden's "Tin Cow" under the name "Eagle Brand" went 
north with the miners into the Klondike gold rush even before 
Borden's began operating in Canada. Thousands of settlers who 
poured into Western Canada in the wake of the expanding railway 
lines looked to Eagle Brand to supplement what was, as a rule, 
a nutritionally-slim diet. 

While "Eagle Brand" was making its triumphant sweep of west 
and central Canada, there was a competitor coming out of the 
east in the form of "Reindeer Brand" Sweetened Condensed Milk, 
Canada's first condensed milk, produced by the Truro Condensed 
Milk and Canning Company at Truro, Nova Scotia, starting in 
1882. Thirty years later it became a Borden product when Borden's 
took over Reindeer Limited, as the Truro company was then known, 
and today "Reindeer Brand" is following the original trail blazed 
by Eagle Brand. It is sold in western and northern Canada and 
is a particular favorite with the Indians. 

Another contribution by the Truro plant to the list of Borden 
products was "Reindeer Condensed Coffee". This product was 
discontinued when sugar rationing was started early in the recent 

The Borden condensed and evaporated milk advance kept pace 
with the development of Canada in the early part of the 20th 

The western trend was spearheaded by William H. Dunn, a 


pioneer of Borden activities in Canada. During his years with the 
company he saw individual sales grow from one-case orders to 
orders for five cases and from one carload to twenty carload lots. 

Years later, western business had so developed that Borden's 
purchased the plant and business of the British Columbia Condensed 
Milk Co., at South Sumas. This plant operated 31 years until 1947, 
when a reduced milk supply resulted in closing down of the plant 
and serving of the area from Central Canadian factories. 

A development over the years of the use in homes of Eagle 
Brand for making candy, is the Borden plant at Norwich, where 
caramels are manufactured for distribution all across Canada. 
During the late war, production was restricted because of shortages 
of sugar and dairy products, but now caramel-making has resumed 
on a large scale and caramel-manufacturing facilities are already 
being increased. 

<rw<n> N I C O L E T <rw<r?> 


*^ Milk into Powder jf* 

|n the early Borden days, 
just at the turn of the century, when pioneer trails were marked 
by thousands of empty condensed and evaporated milk cans, 
another branch of the manufactured milk business was just 
beginning to stir. It was two years before Saskatchewan and 
Alberta became provinces instead of areas of the North West 
Territories in 1903, that what is now the Dry Milk Department 
of Borden's first came on the Canadian scene. 

A Toronto man, Benjamin A. Gould, pioneered the dry milk 
business in Canada when he founded Canadian Milk Products. 
Early in 1903 Mr. Gould purchased Canadian patents for what 
was known as the Just-Hatmaker or roller process of drying milk. 

A small cheese factory at Brownsville, Ont, was taken over 
and equipped with drying machines imported from Scotland. The 
first powdered commercial milk produced in Canada was made 
at the Brownsville factory early in 1904. 

It may have been the competition of "Eagle Brand" and other 
Borden canned milks already strongly entrenched in the field or 
this combined with the newness of the product, but Mr. Gould 
found the going difficult during his first few years of production. 
It was 1907 before the manufacture of dry milk was established 
on a paying basis. 


The Merrell-Soule Company, of Syracuse, N.Y., had developed 
a spray system which produced a superior quality of dry milk. 
Concluding that the future of powdered milk lay in the spray 
process, Mr. Gould began negotiating with Merrell-Soule in 1908. 
By 1909 Canadian Milk Products had been incorporated and the 
Merrell-Soule rights for Canada acquired. 

With the introduction of the new process into the remodelled 
Brownsville plant, production and sale of powdered milk expanded. 
New plants were built at Belmont, Burford, Hickson and Glanworth. 

<r^»^7> BELMONT <r*w<n> 

During World War I, large quantities of powdered milk were 
required for export. To meet the demand a new plant was con- 
structed at Russell, a few miles south of Ottawa. Later a plant 
at Finch, Ont., was purchased. Shortly after the end of the first 
war, the Tillsonburg plant, which had been built by Borden's in 
1908, was taken over by the Canadian Milk Products. 

It was at this time that Harry F. George, just out of the Royal 
Flying Corps, joined Canadian Milk Products as a salesman. Now 
sales and advertising manager of the Dry Milk Department and 
of the Frozen and Powdered Egg Department, Mr. George recalls 


that although his first introduction to the powdered milk industry 
was a visit to the Tillsonburg plant, he had previously used Klim 
in camp, just as many thousands of Allied airmen found milk, made 
from Klim, a major item of their diets during the recent conflict. 

In 1920 a competitor in the powdered milk industry appeared 
on the horizon when City Dairy Company, of Toronto, organized 
a subsidiary, Drimilk Company. Sales office of the new organization 
was at Winnipeg, with plants at Listowel, Princeton and Simcoe, 
all in Ontario. 

Canadian Milk Products became a part of the Borden organi- 
zation in 1928. It was followed in 1930 by Drimilk Company, 
when its parent organization, City Dairy, became a Borden division. 
The two powdered milk organizations continued to operate under 
their own names until 1939, when they pooled their activities and 
are now one operating unit known as the Dry Milk Department. 

The Belmont plant, constructed by C.M.P. was gutted by fire 
in 1943. It has since been rebuilt, is considered the most modern 
powdered milk plant in Canada and is the model for the Borden 
plant since built at Nicolet, Quebec, and the plant now under 
construction at Kemptville, Ontario. 

When we remember that Gail Borden got into the milk business 
through his concern for children and the milk they were being 
given, it is not surprising that a thriving department of Borden's 
should be founded on the development of formula foods for children 
and healthful foods for both children and adults. 

A recent addition to the Borden family of products is Hemo, a 
chocolate-flavored food drink with added vitamins. It is manu- 
factured at Ingersoll, the birthplace of Borden's in Canada. Other 
formula foods such as Dryco, a special powdered milk for babies, 
and Protein and Lactic Acid Milk powders, for infant feeding, are 
produced at Borden's Tillsonburg plant. 

Research by Borden engineers into the powdering of milk, just 
naturally led them into investigating other powdering possibilities. 
The result was powdered lemon juice. Borden's takes pure fruit 
juice, powders it, and distributes it to Canadian bakers, confectioners 
and ice cream manufacturers. 


«^ A Billion Cones j^% 


motor might seem to be a strange device for the promotion of 
the sale of ice cream. Back in 1929 its merchandising possibilities 
were recognized by Borden dealers in Western Ontario. 

The first automatic refrigerated truck for delivering ice cream 
in Canada was made for Borden's Walkerside division just 20 years 
ago. The truck travelled between Windsor, Chatham and London. 
It had a refrigeration unit operated by a one-cylinder gasoline 

Introduction of this refrigerator on wheels provided Walkerside 
ice cream with a noisy self -advertiser. The noise of the engine, 
which was mounted on the top of the truck body, attracted attention 
everywhere it went. Crowds gathered around the vehicle when 
it stopped for deliveries and many dealers were eager to have the 
contraption stop outside their stores. 

Ice cream, which itself has a history going back 200 years to 


the day when a Paris chef proudly placed before his master a 
special treat called "creamed ice", traces its Canadian history to 
City Dairy Company, Toronto, where the manufacture of ice cream 
began in 1900. Last year the ice cream industry in Canada produced 
enough ice cream to fill a billion cones. 

A number of other companies, now all part of Borden's, pion- 
eered in the ice cream industry. Wesgate Ice Cream Ltd., Windsor, 
began manufacturing in 1913; Walkerside Dairy Limited in 1920; 
Fred M. Cairns Co. Ltd., now Niagara Division, in 1927. Ottawa 
Dairy, Limited, was already a big producer of ice cream when it 
came into Borden's in 1928, as was City Dairy, when it joined 
the Borden family in 1930. Hamilton Dairies Ltd., J. J. Joubert, 
Limitee and Brookside Dairy, Quebec City, which became part of 
Borden's in 1944, were also ice cream manufacturers. 

A highlight of so many years of producing a product popular 
with young and old alike was the introduction of Melorol in Toronto 
and Hamilton in 1937. From these Ontario cities Melorol spread 
not only to other Borden ice cream divisions in Ontario and Quebec 
but sparked the production of "roll" ice cream by other companies 
under names other than Melorol which is a trade name registered 
by Borden's. Yet the public and dealers, educated by Borden's 
to demand the modern packaged ice cream for cones, identify most 
roll ice cream by the name "Melorol". 

Evolution of ice cream from a bulk product packed in salt 
and ice has been marked by the development of Borden's modern 
fast-freezing process; refrigerated trucks which carry the product 
from the manufacturing point to retail outlets scores of miles 
away; and a whole array of assorted ice cream products. 

Latest development in ice cream for home use has been the 
"take-home" sundae. While still produced in bulk and bricks, 
ice cream in many other forms has become popular with Canadians. 
The various Borden ice cream divisions produce chocolate-covered 
ice cream bars; novelty bricks for the different seasons; chocolate- 
covered ice cream on a stick; and, during the summer months, 
various fruit flavored ices on sticks. 

A Walkerside Division development has been the Flavour 
Department, which now manufactures syrups and toppings for ice 
cream and marshmallow for the use of bakers and confectioners. 
The department also manufactures chocolate powder and chocolate 
liquid syrup for fountain and home use. 


«*. The Borden Cheese Story j^ 


ago, two men toiled over a small stove in the kitchen of an Ottawa 
house. They were experimenting with different formulas, of their 
own devising, searching for something new in cheese. 

They finally evolved Chateau Cheese, a product which in a 
few years became internationally known. Prior to World War II, 
Chateau Cheese had penetrated to the interior of China; was sold 
in India, Central America and the West Coast of Africa. 

In Chateau Cheese the public was given a product entirely 
different. It retained the qualities of Canadian cheddar cheese 
with the additional advantages that it would spread as well as 
slice, and of a convenient-sized package. 

The Chateau Cheese Company, which became a Borden division 
in 1929, was a pioneer in the marketing of cheese in half-pound 
packages. The founders had special machines built in Switzerland 
with which they could turn out cheese in half-pound packages at 
very little extra cost over the old style five-pound loaf. The 
production line was completely mechanical and the cheese was 
untouched by human hand at any stage. 

The product was less than a year old when it began to find a 
definite market in foreign countries. Chateau made its export debut 
in Germany, a land famous for good cheese. 

The familiar Chateau cheese package is known across Canada. 
Before the war it also appeared on the billboards of Havana, on 
street car cards in Hong Kong, in shop windows in the Balkans. 

When Chateau, with its head office and factory in Ottawa and 
plants throughout eastern Ontario, came into the Borden organiza- 
tion, other units now and other plants bought later, adopted the 
Borden name. These included Laurentian Dairy Limited, of 
Ottawa, which was the first Canadian company to homogenize 
milk for home delivery. 


A subsidiary of Laurentian Dairy was Meadow Milk Products, 
organized shortly after the dairy was started. Meadow Products 
bought milk direct from producers, surplus milk from Laurentian 
Dairy and buttermilk from Moyneur Co-operative Creamery, 
another Chateau subsidiary. All the milk was condensed or dried 
in the Meadow Products plant. 

The Moyneur Co-operative Creamery was founded in 1922 to 
manufacture butter and deal in eggs, poultry and cheese. It also 
operated a large cold storage plant for eggs. 

Moyneur Creamery also was distributor for Chateau Cheese and 
products of the F. X. Baumert Co., Limited, of Huntingdon, Quebec, 
which operated in a plant originally built by Borden's and later 
sold to Baumert. The Baumert Company was bought by Borden's 
in 1929, when Chateau and associated companies were acquired. 

While the trade names of Chateau and Baumert have continued 
to be familiar to cheese eaters in Canada, other cheese lines have 
been developed during the years. Perhaps the best known is Blufort, 
a Canadian Roquefort-type cheese developed during the war, when 

<rw^a KEMPTVILLE <rw^> 


imports of European cheeses were stopped. Blufort was developed 
by Simon Labarge, who was in charge of the manufacture of Chateau 
Cheese in 1926 and who is today vice-president of Borden's in charge 
of the Cheese Division. 

Latest addition to Chateau products is "Tiny Cheese", with 
cocktail spreads to go into production later this year (1949). 

e%^ Eggs Without Shells j^% 


the Borden name when Hall's Ltd. joined the Company early in 
1929. Originally located at Lindsay, Ont., Hall's moved their 
plant to Winnipeg. After Hall's was purchased by Borden's the 
company was affiliated with Canadian Milk Products, Ltd. George 
B. Levis, then an executive of Hall's, is now sales and advertising 
manager of Borden's Grocery Products Department. 

Today Borden's Winnipeg egg plant supplies frozen whole eggs, 
frozen egg yolk and frozen egg white to bakers, and to macaroni 
and spaghetti, soup, ice cream and mayonnaise manufacturers 
across the country. 

Just as Gail Borden pioneered in the condensing of milk, so 
Borden's in Canada were the first to develop several new steps in 
the chain of operations from breaking the shells to delivery of the 
powdered egg to breakfast tables overseas. One of these was a 
process which froze liquid eggs into 40-pound blocks. 

The war and the government's order for more and more 
powdered eggs to feed Canadian troops overseas, at outposts in 
Canada, and for huge amounts to supplement rations of the British 
people resulted in the modern egg-dehydration plant at Winnipeg 
producing in one year several million pounds of powdered eggs. 
The Winnipeg plant is still producing powdered eggs for the people 
overseas. All of Borden production is still ear-marked by the 
government for export. 


*?%^ The Great White River j^ 

'hen Gail Borden sold 
condensed milk from a pushcart on the streets of New York 
almost a century ago it was his way of carrying the battle to 
fluid milk distributors who were selling inferior milk. 

It was, he contended, because the fluid milk industry was failing 
to protect the children who were dependent on bottled milk, that 
Borden persevered in his efforts to popularize canned milk. He died 
long before milk was labelled as "the most nearly perfect food" 
by a United Nations conference on food and nutrition, but the 
Canadian company which perpetuates his name has established a 
reputation, not only as a merchandiser of canned milks, but as one 
of the largest distributors of fluid milk. 

The distribution of fluid milk under the Borden name has a 
comparatively short history but the companies which today are 


merged in the Borden organization built their reputations on the 
good, safe milk they left on the doorsteps of their customers. 

Earliest in the field of present Borden fluid milk components 
were S. Caulfield & Son, whose business was established in Toronto, 
in 1888, with one cow and a few small milk cans. Deliveries were 
made on foot. When the Caulfields sold their business to Borden's 
in 1929, the first entry of Borden's into the fluid milk business 
in Toronto, the dairy was one of the largest in Toronto. 

Borden's bottled milk first made its appearance in Canada when 
Borden's Farm Products, Limited, put a fleet of ten milk wagons 
on the streets of Montreal, in 1913. A high grade of bottled 
milk was sold at a premium of one cent a quart. The plant at 
Huntingdon, Quebec, later sold to the Baumert Co. Ltd., was used 
as a receiving and bottling station and the milk was shipped by 
fast freight to Montreal. 

When Borden's entered the Montreal milk scene they were in 
competition with an old established dairy — J. J. Joubert Limitee, 
a firm which started in 1890 when the city's population was about 
216,000. In the early days J. J. Joubert delivered milk in fruit 

<r*to<r?> TORONTO <rw<ra 


jars similar to those used by housewives during the fruit preserving 
season. In 1892 he learned that bottles were being made especially 
for milk delivery and sealed with pasteboard caps. Adopting this 
new idea, Joubert's were the first in the British Empire to deliver 
milk in bottles. 

In 1899, the birth-year of Borden's in Canada, the Joubert dairy 
was moved to St. Jean Baptiste, now part of Montreal. In 1906 
the present St. Andre Street plant was opened and two years later 
Montreal's first pasteurizing system was installed by Joubert's, 
which became a Borden subsidiary in 1930. 

Preceding the Joubert Company as a Borden unit, but ten years 
younger as a milk company, Ottawa Dairy Ltd., the capital city's 
largest dairy, came into the Borden fold in 1928. At that time the 
Ottawa dairy had been operating for 28 years supplying Ottawa, 
Hull and suburbs. 

One feature of the Ottawa enterprise is an 800-acre farm at 
City View, six miles from Parliament Hill. Operated as a model 
dairy farm, it is still used as a proving ground and an educational 
force in dairy farming in the Ottawa valley. When it became part 
of Borden's, Ottawa Dairy was the parent company of Cornwall 
Dairy Products, at Cornwall, where in addition to a retail milk 
business, the company manufactured condensed and powdered 
milks and cheese. 

In 1930, the Pure Milk Company of Hamilton, which started in 
1902, took the Borden name. In the same year, Hamilton Dairies, 
Ltd., an amalgamation of several dairies in the same city, also 
joined Borden's. At that time, Hamilton Dairies, Limited, oper- 
ated two offices in Hamilton for its retail milk, wholesale butter 
and ice cream businesses. It also had three receiving stations, 
Caledonia, Jarvis and Selkirk. Powdered milk was also manu- 
factured at Caledonia and casein at Jarvis. 

Borden's entered the fluid milk business in Windsor in 1930, 
when it took over the Windsor City Dairy, Walkerside Dairy Ltd., 
and Ballantyne Dairies Limited. 

Walkerside Dairy was the oldest of the group. It was started in 
1905 and from a small farm grew to be the largest milk and ice cream 
distributors in Windsor and suburbs. Windsor City Dairy began 
in 1912, and two years later, Ballantyne Dairies Limited were 


Also in 1930 City Dairy, in Toronto, founded in 1900, and at that 
time the British Empire's largest dairy under one roof, became a 
Borden division. The City Dairy building on Spadina Crescent, 
which now houses the Home Office, the Toronto divisions of the 
Fluid Milk and Ice Cream departments, the Grocery Products, 
Dry Milk, Powdered and Frozen Egg departments of the Manu- 
facturing division, has been an architectural landmark for half 
a century. 

Another 1930 addition to the Borden family was the Cairns 
Creamery at Niagara Falls. The year after the Cairns' organization 
joined Borden's, it amalgamated with the Niagara United Dairies 
and the two companies became known as the Niagara Division 
of Borden's. Brookside Dairy, Quebec City, now Brookside Division, 
joined the Borden organization in 1944. 


&%^ The Rise of Elsie jf$ 

hen Gail Borden, in rebellion 
against the milk practices of his day, turned from land schooners 
and pemmican to the distribution of a safe, popular milk, he 
little dreamed that he was laying the foundation for the glorifi- 
cation of the source of his raw material. For not only did Borden 
spark a food empire as a result of his pioneering, but his name has 
become to be forever associated with a revolution in advertising. 

There are few who do not know who "Elsie the Cow" is and that 
she, too, is a Borden product, the result of the thinking of several 
pioneering advertising executives who felt that milk advertising 
was too dull, too sober and too stuffy. 

Elsie the Bovine Beauty is in sharp contrast with the bearded, 
stately, scientifically-minded Gail Borden. Yet now, more than 90 
years after Borden's first business venture, Elsie The Cow has 


become a symbol of the ideal that motivated Borden — good, safe 

To Canada belongs part of the credit for Elsie as we know her 
today. First let's get to the birth of the Elsie saga. 

The great experiment began in 1936 in what was then considered 
the toughest trying ground of all — the medical journals. Caricature 
cows were introduced into medical publication ads. Elsie appeared 
three times. Response was such that doctors asked for hundreds 
of extra proofs. 

This brought a natural transition — the wider use of Elsie in 
general Borden advertising and that, in turn, led to her appearance, 
in effigy, at the World's Fair. 

The Borden Company had interviewed 500 young women and 
had selected a group of them for training as staff representatives in 
the exhibit information booth which Borden's planned to operate. 

After training, they knew more details about phases of Borden's 
products than 90 per cent of all Borden people, including the 
executives, and were ready and eager to answer any questions. 
One of them was a Canadian representative, Miss Shirley Brydon, 
later Mrs. Baker and now living in East Africa. 

A month after the fair opened, Borden's analyzed the questions 
the public had put to the information booth staff. About 20 per 
cent were about milk or Borden's. Another 20 per cent were 
"Where's the Ladies' Room? The remaining 60 per cent were 
"Where's Elsie?" 

It was Canada's Miss Brydon who suggested to a Canadian execu- 
tive that a live cow was needed to portray Elsie. He put her in 
touch with Stuart Peabody, U.S. Director of Advertising, and the 
live Elsie just naturally followed. 

Out of 150 cows at the exhibit, the best-looking was chosen as 
Elsie. A green blanket with "Elsie" embroidered on it was made, 
and twice a day Elsie was on display for all the fair to see. Seven 
and three-quarter million people visited her. 

Elsie's boudoir was a 1940 creation of Monte Sohn, now the 
manager of Elsie Enterprises, Inc. A seven-year old Jersey, whose 
registered name was "You'll Do Lobelia", played the role of Elsie. 
Elmer came into the family to fill the vacancy left at the 1940 World's 
Fair when Elsie went to Hollywood to play "Buttercup" in the movie 
"Little Men." While she was there, Beulah was born. 

And so the Elsie legend grew. Beauregard, the youngest mem- 
ber of the family, joined Elsie, Elmer and Beulah in 1947. 




«^ Elsie in Canada j^% 


has been to Canada three times. During her first visit in 1941, 
250,000 people saw her at the C.N.E. and voluntarily contributed 
$20,000 to the British War Victims' Fund. Under the auspices of 
the Kinsmen's Club's "Milk for Britain Fund" she paid a second 
visit to Canada in 1943. Her boudoir was set up in department 
stores in Toronto, Montreal and Ottawa. In Montreal, people lined 
up six feet deep in the rain for four blocks to see Elsie. The store 
had to use all its elevators, passenger and freight, to transport the 
thousands to their sixth floor. Elsie's boudoir was set up in the 
carpet department and three aisles had been kept clear leading 
to her. The crowd flowed over the aisles and the carpets to see Elsie. 
The most recent visit of Elsie to Canada was in 1947 when nearly 
half a million lined up to see her. Again her visit helped worthy 
causes. Half of the voluntary donations went to the Hospital for 


Sick Children, the other half to the Christmas Cheer for British 
Children Fund. 

During the 50th anniversary year Elsie will again go on tour in 
Canada. She will make her appearance in as many places as 
possible and proceeds of the tour will be directed to worthy causes 
in the cities where she appears.